Former B.C. casino supervisor blows whistle on when Macau-style money laundering may have exploded


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Muriel Labine favored her job on the Nice Canadian Gaming on line casino in Richmond, B.C.

She was a supplier supervisor, monitoring the integrity of the playing occurring round her. Labine hoped to work for Nice Canadian till she retired.

However in Might 1997, the NDP authorities elevated guess limits from $25 to $500 per hand, launched baccarat tables and prolonged playing hours.

That’s when, she says, all the pieces modified.

Inside days, Labine seen the VIP gamblers begin to are available in. But it surely was unusual, she says, that these excessive rollers had been virtually all the time accompanied by younger Asian males who gave them money. Many workers within the Richmond on line casino began to name these younger males “Human Teller Machines.”

Labine judged they had been mortgage sharks, she says, as a result of they might usher in their very own shoppers and sit with them on the tables, passing the baccarat gamers bundles of $20 payments and on line casino chips.

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This paper cash — wrinkled and wrapped in elastic bands — wasn’t possible coming from banks, she judged. When the gamblers ran out of cash, she says the “human tellers” would make calls on their cellphones, setting off flurries of exercise.

Somebody — usually an older Asian man who was handled with respect, in keeping with Labine’s reminiscence of those scenes — would arrive on the on line casino with a plastic grocery bag. The “human tellers” would seize bricks of money from the bag, give their shoppers new wads of $20s and playing would begin once more.

Inside months, income on the on line casino had practically doubled. However there was a price, Labine mentioned. Extra cash, extra worry.

Labine has determined, over 20 years later, to come back ahead with paperwork, together with her handwritten on line casino journal notes from the time interval and B.C. Gaming Fee income paperwork that seem to document the precise second when Macau-style cash laundering exploded in B.C.’s economic system.

These information, given solely to World Information, could possibly be problematic for the present NDP authorities, which, together with unbiased reviewer Peter German, has positioned many of the blame for B.C.’s casino-money-laundering scandal on the B.C. Liberal authorities, which took energy in 2001.

Though Labine didn’t know precisely what she was seeing in the summertime of 1997, her paperwork seem to supply a unprecedented historic document — a view from the on line casino flooring of the months when frightened employees witnessed the arrival of Macau on line casino gangs.

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Nice Canadian Gaming was requested repeatedly to reply in an interview to plenty of the particular allegations made in Labine’s information, that are reported on this story.

The corporate responded with solely this remark: “As a matter of coverage, we don’t touch upon worker issues, and particular to this request, we’re challenged to know how allegations from 20 years in the past present worth to World readers/viewers.”

Massive Circle Boys

Ultimately, Labine says she and Richmond on line casino employees got here to imagine from safety employees that loan-sharking members of the Massive Circle Boys and different Triads — drug-trafficking and casino-money-laundering syndicates which might be linked to Chinese language officers and Hong Kong tycoons, in keeping with RCMP information — had change into, as Labine noticed it, harmful co-workers.

She began to complain to managers. Employees shouldn’t must work with gangsters, she instructed them, in keeping with her grievance information.

Time and again, on line casino administration had the identical reply, her information allege.

“Administration was popping out of the again workplace, saying: ‘They’re simply buddies loaning cash to buddies,’” Labine recalled.

“There was no query that they weren’t ever going to make use of the phrase ‘mortgage shark,’ ‘gangs’ or ‘cash lenders.’ No, the corporate was not going to make use of these phrases — they had been denying it.”

So Labine modified her plan. Her information present that, like an inside investigator, she constructed an intelligence community. She chatted up on line casino surveillance employees, began to pry info from co-workers and recorded detailed notes in a journal. She and others described suspected gangsters, assigning them code names and logging their associations and hierarchy, the circulate of money night time to nighttime and the way they had been linked to one another.

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Her notes additionally recorded observations of tense conferences between suspected Massive Circle Boys kingpins — older males that Labine judged had been feared and revered — that occurred within the Richmond on line casino’s rooms after a taking pictures occurred in a Richmond restaurant.

“We’re all involved for our security, and we really feel we have to doc these actions for our personal well-being,” an Aug. 1, 1998 entry in Labine’s journal reads.

“We really feel the baccarat pit is getting out of hand and that the on line casino is ignoring our warnings … employees have gotten extra conscious of the gangs that are actually working amongst us … supervisors are feeling intimidated and overwhelmed.”

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About two years later, Labine would use her notes to escalate a grievance all the way in which to the highest, making beautiful allegations which might be recorded in her alternate of letters with Nice Canadian Gaming’s then-president and founder, Ross McLeod.

Income doubles

After Might 1997, Labine collected on line casino income sheets and matched them in opposition to the transactions she was observing within the baccarat pit.

The variety of tables within the small Richmond on line casino didn’t change — it had 30 betting tables and no slot machines.

In Might, the entire on line casino income after paying out guess wins was $1,617,000, B.C. Gaming Fee paperwork obtained by World Information present. The bulk went to B.C.’s authorities, and Nice Canadian’s share was $647,000. In June, after the baccarat and better guess restrict adjustments, income within the Richmond on line casino surged to $2,490,000, with Nice Canadian taking $996,000.

In July, the Richmond on line casino win had practically doubled to $three,035,000. And in August, whole Richmond on line casino income was $2.65 million, B.C. authorities paperwork present.

A B.C. government record shows that revenue for the Richmond casino and government almost doubled when baccarat was introduced and bet limits raised from $25 to $500.

A B.C. authorities document reveals that income for the Richmond on line casino and authorities virtually doubled when baccarat was launched and guess limits raised from $25 to $500.


Month to month, the variety of “human tellers” within the on line casino continued to rise, in keeping with Labine’s journal information.

“The studies present clearly the large enhance in income the month the boundaries had been elevated to $500 and the mini-baccarat recreation was permitted within the on line casino, which coincided with the arrival of the gangs,” Labine instructed World Information.

“Most of that cash didn’t seem like coming from a financial institution, however as a substitute from the mortgage sharks via their shoppers.”

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The journal entries

In minute element, Labine’s journal notes describe the wild new financial elements in play.

“The inhabitants of $500 gamers has grown considerably over the previous couple of months,” an August 1998 journal be aware reads. “It’s not unusual for greater than 20 individuals to be enjoying a single baccarat desk.”

Labine and a few of her colleagues described the lads she believed had been funding these baccarat gamers, because the “Boys.”

“We’re conscious that there’s multiple gang working the tables,” an August 1998 journal be aware says. “The Asian sellers and the on line casino safety have slowly been feeding us this info … the ‘Boys’ have their very own shoppers, which they’re catering to solely … offering something they need, however largely handing them giant portions of money or chips after they run out of cash.”

Labine had questions concerning the $20s pouring throughout the baccarat tables, and journal information present the employees scrutinized how the cash was distributed.

“We now have been questioning the place they handle to search out these large quantities of twenty-dollar payments … the nicely, it by no means appears to dry up,” a 1998 journal document reads.

“(Title redacted), a head mortgage shark who has been working for fairly a while at our on line casino, is available in. He’s carrying a grocery bag full of cash. He indicators the opposite ‘Boys’ to affix him. All of them stand on the concession stand, and (head mortgage shark) opens the bag and begins to cross out bundles of twenty-dollar payments … The ‘Boys’ deliver the money again to the tables to start the transactions.”

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Based on her information, the gangs had been in a position to simply alternate $20s for $100s within the on line casino.

“The ‘Boys’ will regularly purchase in with bundled twenty-dollar payments that whole $1,000/$2,000 every bundle. We now have been pressured in latest weeks to ship these males to the money cage to make the transactions … the cage will then alternate the smaller payments for bigger payments that may be extra simply modified on a gaming desk.”

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Whereas Labine’s journal doesn’t be aware it, exchanging $20s for $100s is a money-laundering approach often called “refining” foreign money. Also referred to as “colouring up,” the transaction permits criminals to alternate $20s utilized in avenue drug transactions for $100s which might be extra acceptable in banking and enterprise transactions.

Labine says she strongly suspected the $20s flooding throughout baccarat tables had been drug cash. Referring to a senior worker, a 1998 journal be aware reads: “(Title redacted) feels strongly that heroin, not extortion, is the most important supply of earnings for the sharks … in keeping with him, offers happen on a regular basis and are seen if you’re paying consideration. In public washrooms, in keeping with him, on a number of events, (he) was witness to drug offers by the ‘Boys.’”

A casino whistleblower recorded journal notes about staff’s belief the Big Circle Boys had placed loan sharks in the Richmond casino’s baccarat pit.

A on line casino whistleblower recorded journal notes about employees’s perception the Massive Circle Boys had positioned mortgage sharks within the Richmond on line casino’s baccarat pit.


This commentary is per information in B.C. court docket recordsdata, which say police believed the Massive Circle Boys most popular to make drug transactions in casinos as a result of if police caught them, they may use on line casino play as an excuse for big quantities of money.

These investigators level to a Massive Circle Boys kingpin who was believed to be the highest mortgage shark within the Richmond on line casino and a violent heroin trafficker. Investigators alleged the kingpin, who was going through a deportation order, would lend out his “buckets” of money via his “minions” into the palms of Chinese language excessive rollers within the on line casino.

These loans can be secured in opposition to luxurious autos and Vancouver houses, court docket information allege. And the mortgage shark was paid again with cheques — a reality confirmed when cheques value lots of of hundreds had been seized from his dwelling, information present. If on line casino debtors couldn’t pay again, the kingpin and his cell of Massive Circle Boys would extort their victims, making threats and seizing autos, furnishings or houses as reimbursement, in keeping with the allegations.

The seized autos had been offered at a Vancouver automobile dealership owned by the loan-sharking kingpin, Canada Border Service brokers alleged, and in addition shipped to China and Hong Kong.

‘Lay off him’

Labine says her worry of the Massive Circle Boys elevated when she noticed Richmond on line casino clients threatened and coming to the baccarat pit with facial bruises.

“I got here into the on line casino one night time to go to work, and there was one in all our clients with two of the mortgage sharks. (They) had him up in opposition to the wall on the skin of the constructing, threatening him, saying: ‘We wish our cash, we wish our cash,’” she recalled.

Her journal information level to a number of males who appeared to instill worry wherever they went.

“We had been instructed by senior on line casino administration months in the past to ‘lay off him. He isn’t somebody you need to cope with,’” one entry in Labine’s journal alleges.

“He stood solely about 5 ft excessive, was balding, in his fifties and had essentially the most sinister look one may ever think about. He was the one shark that was given free cigarettes and drinks by the on line casino.”

Based on her journal, this man “was as soon as seen shaking palms and engaged in lengthy conversations with the vice-president of the on line casino … Many of the employees appeared extremely intimidated by this fellow.”

There was one other man, a VIP gambler, who appeared to be equally feared and allegedly threatened a on line casino supervisor, who was a Chinese language lady, over the end result of a baccarat guess.

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“The ‘Fats Man’ is a excessive curler who associates with gangs. Sure members of administration have knowledgeable us of their want to take away him, nonetheless greater administration, out of worry and/or out of greed for the person’s cash, have opted to not,” a journal entry alleges.

“The risk that was uttered to the supervisor was, ‘I’m going to place a bullet between your eyes.’”

Nice Canadian Gaming didn’t reply to a query about whether or not an worker was threatened on this case.

The journal notes level to plenty of Asian organized crime “households” — however solely essentially the most outstanding gang is known as.

“Safety informs us that one of many gangs is the Massive Circle Boys,” a 1998 journal document reads.

By this time, Labine had gathered what she calls “bodily” proof of mortgage sharking within the on line casino — paper information indicating mortgage quantities to code-named excessive rollers — the journal information present. However even then, she was not 100 per cent positive that her observations and fears concerning the “Boys” had been correct.

That modified in November 1998 after a lower-level mortgage shark code-named within the journals as “Michael” was shot throughout a mah-jong recreation within the again room of a Richmond restaurant by a senior shark code-named “Scarface.”

Within the tried homicide case, court docket heard the 2 males had been mortgage sharks in Richmond and that they had been related to the Massive Circle Boys together with one other alleged on line casino mortgage shark named Betty Yan, who was witness to the taking pictures of Michael, the Vancouver Solar reported in 1999. Yan denied she was a Massive Circle Boys gangster within the case. However in deportation hearings, she was linked to a loan-sharking operation, information present, earlier than she was shot useless in 2009 whereas sitting in her Mercedes outdoors a suspected unlawful Richmond on line casino.

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“We now have to face round hoping and praying that we’re protected from hurt. We’re within the line of fireside greater than every other,” a November 1998 be aware from Labine’s journal says. “We’re 4 days away from the bail listening to of ‘Scarface.’”

And in the meantime, giant quantities of money stored flowing to baccarat tables, inflicting employees to worry excessive rollers can be robbed at gunpoint, in keeping with December 1998 journal notes.

“The employees have gotten extra conscious of the foreign money the ‘Boys’ are producing for the on line casino,” the notes say. “The drops are within the lots of of hundreds, and it by no means appears to let up. It’s common now to see males carrying purses full of money.”

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Some employees hoped the taking pictures of Michael within the Richmond restaurant would deliver sustained police consideration contained in the on line casino.

“We’re speculating that the police are once more making an attempt a home cleansing … latest arrests inside the on line casino definitely assist to make the sharks discover a new dwelling,” the notes say.

However by January 1999, hopes of a chronic police crackdown had light.

“As we anticipated, the ‘Boys’ are again. They appear to know that after a couple of weeks, all the house-cleaning mission will stop, and it is going to be enterprise as traditional,” a journal entry reads. “We virtually really feel sorry for the police at this time limit. They appear to be as helpless as we’re, and earlier than too lengthy, it is rather possible that we could possibly be robbed at gunpoint.”

An excerpt from a casino whistleblower’s journal describes fears that an alleged loan shark accused in an attempted murder case could bring violence into the Richmond casino.

An excerpt from a on line casino whistleblower’s journal describes fears that an alleged mortgage shark accused in an tried homicide case may deliver violence into the Richmond on line casino.


Security committee

Labine says she determined to rally employees round her considerations and joined a number of worker points committees, together with one centered on office security.

“What I came upon scared me. This was organized crime,” Labine instructed World Information in an in-depth interview.

She says she escalated her marketing campaign in opposition to mortgage sharks and gangs within the office to a employees assembly attended by Adrian Thomas, Nice Canadian’s vice-president on the time. Thomas left the corporate’s operations in 2003 and says he not has any connection to Nice Canadian Gaming.

“I raised my hand and mentioned: ‘I need to discuss concerning the gangs on the agenda.’ Adrian checked out me and mentioned: ‘They’re simply buddies loaning cash to buddies.’ And that was the top of it,” Labine recalled. “He shut me proper down. Proper there.”

Labine mentioned she got here to comprehend her efforts would fail.

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“On line casino income was hovering. The gangs and the money they generated within the on line casino grew to become the goose that laid the golden eggs,” she recalled. “It grew to become fairly apparent that the extra enterprise the gangs did, the extra income the on line casino made. I couldn’t see the on line casino killing the goose anytime quickly.”

Ultimately, Labine alleges, Thomas requested Labine for a non-public assembly in a poker site on the on line casino. She mentioned Thomas requested her if she was involved about employees security. And she or he remains to be shocked by what she mentioned she heard.

“I mentioned sure, I used to be. I knew there have been gangs within the on line casino, and this was not a protected place to work,” Labine mentioned. “He mentioned: ‘You don’t have anything to fret about. These are solely Asian gangs. They don’t seem to be the Russian mafia, and it’s not the Hells Angels.’

“He then mentioned to me: ‘I’ve made a deal. They gained’t s–t in their very own nest.’”

“I couldn’t imagine what I used to be listening to,” Labine continued. “He mentioned he had made a cope with the opposite on line casino gangs, too, that there have been at different areas. I used to be completely shocked. This was my office, and he tells me they gained’t s–t of their nest. When did my office change into their nest?”

A copy of a casino whistleblower’s journal describes fears surrounding high-rollers carrying massive amounts of cash and the perceived threat of robbery.

A duplicate of a on line casino whistleblower’s journal describes fears surrounding high-rollers carrying large quantities of money and the perceived risk of theft.

Thomas responds

In an on-the-record interview,  Thomas responded to plenty of Labine’s allegations. There are some areas during which Thomas and Labine agree. The introduction of baccarat tables and elevating guess limits to $500 modified all the pieces, each say.

“It was a brand new factor for members of our employees. Keep in mind, up till that point, we cope with bets of $25 on this province up till 1997,” Thomas mentioned. “After all, as quickly as the federal government is available in, all the pieces they’d denied earlier than — ‘Oh no, we are able to’t have excessive betting limits’ — then, in fact, that was precisely what they did, simply to make it larger for themselves, which is kind of comprehensible.”

Thomas mentioned as soon as on line casino administration may show a money lender was within the flawed, he and his high managers would bar them.

“It’s a must to differentiate. Should you see anyone handing anyone else some cash, you’ve got to have the ability to say, ‘Nicely, is that this a buddy?’” Thomas mentioned. “’Is that this a relative, is it a mortgage shark, no matter?’ You see massive quantities of cash and also you see it typically sufficient, you understand it may presumably be from what you name a ‘mortgage shark.’”

Thomas strongly denied that he ever knowingly met with a suspected gang boss within the on line casino, as is alleged in Labine’s journal notes.

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“I shook palms with many individuals. Did I shake palms with somebody who was purportedly a mortgage shark or a runner? Possibly,” Thomas mentioned. “If I had a cause to shake palms. I used to bar individuals myself within the on line casino … and I’d shake their palms generally. That doesn’t imply something. That’s simply (a) silly notion of those that need to trigger bother.”

“If it was a gang boss, I didn’t know something about it,” Thomas added.

“If this was a recognized gang boss, why would I stand there and have an extended dialog and shake palms with him? That doesn’t make any sense.”

Thomas added that the Richmond on line casino didn’t promote cigarettes so it could be inconceivable to “comp” cigarettes to on line casino patrons, corresponding to the person that Labine’s notes declare was feared and about whom employees had been instructed to “lay off him.”

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Thomas reiterated throughout a prolonged interview that he was a hands-on supervisor, and he would generally meet with suspicious on line casino patrons to inform them they had been out of line or not welcome within the on line casino.

For instance, Thomas mentioned, he was conscious that Yan, the alleged on line casino mortgage shark who was shot useless in 2009, got here into the Richmond on line casino often — however Thomas mentioned Yan was “principally persona non grata.”

Thomas mentioned that Lai Changxing, a felony billionaire and China’s “most wished man” — in addition to a prolific baccarat gambler in Richmond who intently related to Yan and alleged Massive Circle Boys kingpin Kwok Chung Tam, in keeping with federal court docket information — was as soon as taken into a non-public safety room within the Richmond on line casino by Thomas and instructed to not make bother.

“I instructed him that is our enterprise and we don’t need any issues together with his boys,” Thomas recalled. “We had safety and backup. These guys don’t s–t of their nest.”

Thomas mentioned he obtained a grievance that Lai allegedly sexually assaulted a feminine on line casino supplier. Thomas mentioned he seemed into the allegation, however it was not confirmed, and the worker didn’t need to pursue the grievance.

Lai, who was finally extradited to China in 2011, was additionally recognized by the nickname “Lai Fats-Man” in keeping with studies.

Tam, who has been convicted of extortion and linked to working a drug lab in Richmond, has repeatedly asserted that he’s a authentic businessman, federal court docket information present.

Thomas strongly denied that he ever got here to an understanding with or had dealings with gangs in Nice Canadian Gaming casinos. Nonetheless, he says he recollects telling some within the on line casino that they couldn’t be jotting down transactions of their document books in entrance of surveillance cameras or performing suspiciously.

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“Should you assume somebody is working as a ‘Human Teller Machine’ — what the employees referred to them as — in case you assume that’s what they’re doing, you need to discuss to them,” Thomas mentioned. “You inform them, ‘You may’t do that, and many others., and if you wish to lend somebody cash, it will possibly’t be inside our sight. It might’t be inside our premises. As a result of if we see something like that, we’ve bought to do one thing about it.”

And it was Nice Canadian Gaming that took the initiative in banning unwelcome patrons in some circumstances, Thomas mentioned, and pressed the B.C. Lottery Company to implement the bans.

Thomas pressured that he by no means had any indication that mortgage sharks had been laundering drug cash.

“Medicine being concerned? By no means heard it. I don’t know the way anybody would comprehend it, runner was working for a mortgage shark who was concerned in medication. I by no means heard it, by no means noticed any proof of that, by no means heard a hearsay from employees about that so I don’t know the place that comes from,” he mentioned.

And the assembly with Labine in a Richmond on line casino poker site?

Thomas says the assembly did happen, and “s–t in their very own nest” might be a remark he made in reference to the characters that Labine complained about. However there was by no means any deal made with gangs, he pressured.

“If anyone comes out and says that, I’ll demand to know who it’s and I’ll have them in God rattling court docket and I’ll show it,” Thomas mentioned. “Absolute bulls–t. I didn’t have any dealings, and nor did anybody on the firm, so far as I do know, have any dealings with any unhealthy guys or any gangs. Definitely to not do with medication or cash lending.”

Thomas says that Labine “hated” him and he or she has exaggerated his phrases and twisted the context.

Labine was motivated to lie about what she noticed, Thomas mentioned, as a result of she was turned down for a promotion with Nice Canadian after which rejected in her union group efforts. That’s the reason, in keeping with Thomas, Labine grew to become a hard worker and finally left to work with the B.C. Authorities Workers Union.

However Labine insists she is telling the reality. And although she nonetheless fears being sued by Nice Canadian Gaming and talking out about gangsters, she feels somebody wants to interrupt the silence and maintain B.C.’s authorities to account.

“I’m doing this as a result of it’s the proper factor to do, and it’s what I ought to have performed 20 years in the past,” Labine mentioned. “Why did nobody see what was occurring? Somebody did. They needed to have. As a result of I may see it. And I’m a middle-aged grandmother, on the time, from the suburbs.”

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