How Netflix uses Python: Streaming giant reveals its programming language libraries and frameworks


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The corporate has detailed the methods it makes use of Python, one of many world’s quickest rising languages.

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Streaming big Netflix has revealed how it’s profiting from the versatile programming language Python.

The corporate has detailed the methods it makes use of Python, one of many world’s quickest rising languages, for the whole lot from operations administration and evaluation by to safety and networking.

The corporate depends on a mixture of well-known packages and in-house software program libraries, with Python seemingly utilized in practically each nook of the enterprise, which is essentially run off the Amazon Net Companies (AWS) cloud platform.

“We use Python by the complete content material lifecycle, from deciding which content material to fund all the way in which to working the CDN that serves the ultimate video to 148 million members,” write Netflix engineers in a weblog put up.

In case you’re all in favour of discovering out extra about Python, try TechRepublic’s information to free sources for studying Python and this round-up of one of the best Python guides and code examples on GitHub.

This is how Netflix makes use of Python.


Neftlix’s demand engineering staff construct resiliency into the community by offering regional failovers and orchestrating the distribution of Netflix’s visitors.

“We’re proud to say that our staff’s instruments are constructed primarily in Python,” the staff writes.

“The flexibility to drop right into a bpython shell and improvise has saved the day greater than as soon as.”

Instruments utilized by the staff embrace:

  • NumPy and SciPy to carry out numerical evaluation
  • Boto3 to make adjustments to AWS infrastructure
  • rq to run asynchronous workloads
  • Flask APIs are used as a wrapper across the orchestration instruments above.
  • Jupyter Notebooks and nteract are used to investigate operational knowledge and prototype visualization instruments. Neflix makes use of Python to construct customized extensions to the Jupyter server that enables engineers to handle duties like logging, archiving, publishing and cloning notebooks.

In the meantime, the large knowledge orchestration staff present providers and tooling for scheduling and executing ETL (Extract, Rework, Load) of information and adhoc knowledge pipelines.

The staff use Jupyter Notebooks with papermill to permit the scheduler to offer templatized job varieties, for instance Spark.

Additionally used is pygenie, a Netflix-built consumer that interfaces with Genie, a federated job execution service.

Statistical evaluation

Netflix’s CORE staff makes use of many Python statistical and mathematical libraries, additionally together with NumPy, SciPy, ruptures, and Pandas, which assist analyse 1000’s of alerts after an alert.

Python has additionally been used to develop a time collection correlation system, in addition to a distributed employee system to parallelize giant analytic workloads.

On prime of that, Python can also be usually used for automation duties, knowledge exploration and cleansing, and visualization.

Monitoring and automatic response

Netflix’s Perception Engineering staff is answerable for constructing and working the instruments for producing alerts, diagnostics, and automated remediation.

They now help Python shoppers for many of their providers, together with the Spectator Python consumer library, a library for recording dimensional, time-series metrics.

The Python frameworks Gunicorn, Flask, Flask-RESTPlus have been additionally used to create Netflix’s Winston and Bolt diagnostic and remediation platforms.


Netflix’s data safety staff makes use of Python for all kinds of duties, together with safety automation, threat classification, auto-remediation, and vulnerability identification.

Python tasks embrace:

  • Safety Monkey– an open-source Netflix library for monitoring AWS, Google Cloud Platform, OpenStack, and GitHub for adjustments to belongings.
  • The Bless SSH Certificates Authority to guard SSH sources.
  • Repokid permits Python for use to assist with IAM (Id and Entry Administration) permission tuning.
  • Lemur is used to assist generate TLS certificates and Netflix additionally makes use of the Diffy forensics triage software, which it constructed fully utilizing Python.

Machine studying

Netflix depends on Python extensively when coaching machine studying fashions it makes use of for the whole lot from suggestion algorithms to art work personalization to advertising algorithms.

Some algorithms use TensorFlow, Keras, and PyTorch when coaching deep neural networks, whereas XGBoost and LightGBM are used to construct Gradient Boosted Choice Bushes.

Netflix additionally makes use of the broader scientific stack in Python, akin to NumPy, SciPy, scikit-learn, Matplotlib, Pandas and cvxpy.

Metaflow, a Python framework that makes it straightforward to execute ML tasks from the prototype stage to manufacturing, is used throughout the corporate at scale. With Metaflow, Netflix depends on properly parallelized and optimized Python code to fetch knowledge at 10Gbps, dealing with tons of of hundreds of thousands of information factors in reminiscence, and orchestrating computation over tens of 1000’s of CPU cores.

Jupyter Notebooks are additionally used for working up new experiments.


Netflix’s scientific computing staff for experimentation gives a platform for scientists and engineers to investigate AB assessments and different experiments.

Among the many Python frameworks they use are:

The Metrics Repo is a Python framework based mostly on PyPika that enables customers to put in writing reusable, parameterized SQL queries.

The Causal Fashions library, a Python and R framework, which makes use of PyArrow and RPy2, and permits scientists to contribute new fashions for causal inference.

In the meantime Netflix’s visualizations library is predicated on Plotly.

Video encoding and automatic content material evaluation

Netflix has a staff devoted to encoding the Netflix catalog and utilizing machine studying to analyse it, for instance to extract one of the best stills from a film.

Among the many round 50 tasks the place Python is used are the video high quality analysis library vmaf and the mezzfs library for mounting content material from cloud object storage as native recordsdata.

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