This 12 months, scientists introduced an unbelievable discovery by poop stains in satellite tv for pc pictures — 1.5 million Adélie penguins have been residing and thriving on a bit of patch in Antarctica surrounded by treacherous sea ice referred to as the Hazard Islands.
It seems that these elusive seabirds had lived on the islands undetected for no less than 2,800 years, based on new, unpublished analysis introduced Dec. 11 on the American Geophysical Union assembly in Washington, D.C. [In Photos: Adélie Penguins of East Antarctica]
It began when a gaggle of researchers spent 10 months doing what they thought was a pan-Antarctic survey of Adélie penguins by wanting by means of each single cloud-free satellite tv for pc picture that they’d of the southern continent. “We thought that we knew the place all of the [Adélie] penguin colonies have been,” stated Heather Lynch, an ecologist on the Stony Brook College, throughout the information convention.
That’s, till a colleague at NASA developed an algorithm that made the detections automated. That is when it “bing bing bing,” began flagging all of those pixels from the Hazard Islands that “we as human annotators had merely simply missed,” Lynch stated. When Lynch and her workforce went again to look extra intently on the pictures, certain sufficient, they noticed the extent to which the Hazard Islands have been stuffed with penguin poop.
“We, I believe, had missed it partially as a result of we hadn’t anticipated to seek out them there,” Lynch stated. That they had beforehand surveyed one of many islands of the group, however not all of them.
The Hazard Islands aren’t straightforward to get to, as they’re “so-called as a result of they’re nearly at all times coated by a thick layer of sea ice throughout that precludes common censuses on this space,” Lynch stated.
Even so, spurred by the poop stains, Lynch’s colleagues journeyed to the islands for a full survey, the place they counted — bodily on the bottom and with drones — simply how populated by this seabird they have been. “On this space that is so small that it does not even seem on most maps of the Antarctic,” reside extra Adélie penguins than the remainder of Antarctica mixed, Lynch stated. She stayed at Stony Brook College and managed satellite tv for pc pictures to assist them keep away from sea ice.
The information shocked and delighted folks throughout the globe when it got here out in March.
In any case, the remainder of the Adélie penguins on the mainland, their habitat hit exhausting by local weather change, have been steadily declining for the previous 40 years. In actual fact, “nowhere is the local weather altering extra quickly than on the Antarctic peninsula,” Lynch stated.
However among the workforce’s new findings recommend that though 1.5 million looks like a giant quantity, it is not as massive because it as soon as may need been. After their preliminary analyses of latest satellite tv for pc imagery, the workforce determined to take a look at previous satellite tv for pc pictures that date again to 1982.
They discovered that the Adélie penguin populations probably peaked within the late 1990s and “has been on a sluggish however regular decline ever since,” Lynch stated. The decline “will not be catastrophic,” however relatively on the order of a 10 to 20 % decline, she later added.
As a result of the Hazard Islands are nearly at all times surrounded by sea ice, they’re extra protected against krill fishing and different human interventions than different areas of the continent, Lynch stated. Besides, the very best working speculation is that the inhabitants decline there may be in all probability additionally attributable to local weather change.
A part of the workforce, led by Casey Youngflesh, a postdoctoral researcher on the College of Connecticut, additionally spent a while determining what the penguins have been consuming based mostly on the shade of pink of their poop in satellite tv for pc pictures — consuming krill versus fish could make a distinction in poop shade. One other a part of the workforce, led by Michael Polito, an assistant professor within the division of oceanography and coastal sciences at Louisiana State College dug holes within the island to be taught in regards to the penguins’ previous. Radiocarbon courting of the bones and eggshells present in these holes revealed these penguins have been hiding out on the islands for a very long time: They appear to have first appeared on the islands 2,800 years in the past.
And “now that now we have found this hotspot of Adélie abundance right here within the Hazard Islands, we wish to have the ability to defend it, and that entails making an attempt to know why the populations might have modified,” Lynch stated.
Initially revealed on Dwell Science.