Unraveling the Physics of Gummy Candies

Giant Gummy Bear Illustration

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A research from Ozyegin University and Middle East Technical University explored the optimum formulation and storage circumstances for gummy candies. By various elements and observing storage circumstances, they discovered that starch content material didn’t influence sweet hardness or molecular bond size. The analysis may assist enhance gummy sweet shelf life and high quality throughout varied climates. (Pictured is an artist’s idea of an enormous gummy bear.)

Dozens of ingredient and storage mixtures reveal what elements make some gummies tougher than others and the way product formulation impacts shelf life.

For gummy candies, texture could be much more essential than style. Biting into a tough, stale deal with is disappointing, even when it nonetheless carries a burst of sweetness. Keeping gummies in good situation depends upon their formulation and storage, each of which alter how the molecules within the candies hyperlink collectively.

In Physics of Fluids, by AIP Publishing, researchers from Ozyegin University and Middle East Technical University conducted a series of experiments that explore how changing key parts of the gummy-making process affects the final product, as well as how the candies behave in different storage temperatures. They used these results to identify the most shelf-stable combination for gummy candies.

To tackle these questions, the group adjusted a variety of inputs while making the gummies, from the glucose syrup-to-sucrose ratio to starch and gelatin concentrations. They wanted to understand how these changes affected features like candy texture, moisture content, and pH.

They then studied the resulting features of the candies before and after storage. Storage conditions varied from 10 to 30 degrees Celsius (50 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit) for 12 weeks or 15 to 22 °C (59 to 72 °F) for a year.

Such extensive combinations of procedures presented their own hurdles during the study.

Gummy Candy as a Food Model for Texture

Gummy candy as a food model for texture. Credit: Suzan Tireki

“A high number of parameters was the main challenge in our study,” author Suzan Tireki said. “We had eight different candy formulations, four different temperature conditions, and two different storage times. Another challenge was to try to find a common model for all these eight formulations, as each of them behaved differently.”

To account for such a variety of variables, the researchers used a statistical model to describe how each combination affected the quality parameters of the gummy. They specifically explored the chemical crosslink distances, or the length of bonds between molecules in the candy.

“The most innovative part of our study was investigating the texture of the gummy candies by estimating the average crosslink distances using the hardness data coming from texture profile analysis,” Tireki said.

The moisture content and pH, for example, were heavily dependent on the glucose syrup-to-sucrose ratio, whereas the gelatin content affected crosslink distances.

“Our most surprising finding was that hardness and average crosslink distance were not affected by the amount of starch,” Tireki said.

Identifying the most stable combinations for gummies can extend shelf life and improve candy quality in different climates and across the food industry.

The researchers next look to explore the role of plant-based formulations, mold shapes, and packaging types.

Reference: “Investigation of average crosslink distance and physicochemical properties of gummy candy during storage: Effect of formulation and storage temperature” by Suzan Tireki, Gulum Sumnu, and Serpil Sahin, 17 May 2023, Physics of Fluids.
DOI: 10.1063/5.0146761