Towards 2D Spin-Logic Memory Technology Using Magnetic Graphene

Spin Currents in a Bilayer Graphene/CrSBr Heterostructure

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Simplified schematic image of the studied gadget, revealing electrical and thermal generation of spin currents in a bilayer graphene/CrSBr heterostructure. The magnetic Co electrodes are utilized to figure out the degree of distance caused spin polarization in the bilayer graphene, where the magnetization of the outer-most layer of CrSBr (MCSB) permits greater conductivity of the spin-up electrons (red arrows). Credit: Talieh Ghiasi, University of Groningen

In spintronics, the magnetic minute of electrons (spin) is utilized to move and control info. An ultra-compact 2D spin-logic circuitry might be constructed from 2D products that can transfer the spin info over cross countries and likewise offer strong spin-polarization of charge existing. Experiments by physicists at the University of Groningen (The Netherlands) and Colombia University (U.S.A.) recommend that magnetic graphene can be the supreme option for these 2D spin-logic gadgets as it effectively transforms charge to spin existing and can move this strong spin-polarization over cross countries. This discovery will be released today (May 6, 2021) in Nature Nanotechnology.

Spintronic gadgets are appealing high-speed and energy-saving options for the existing electronic devices. These gadgets utilize the magnetic minute of electrons so-called spins (‘up’ or ‘down’) to move and save info. The continuous reducing of memory innovation needs ever smaller sized spintronic gadgets and hence it seeks for atomically thin products that can actively produce big spin signals and move the spin info over micrometer-long ranges.


For over a years, graphene has actually been the most beneficial 2D product for the transportation of spin info. However, graphene cannot produce spin existing by itself unless its residential or commercial properties are properly customized. One method to accomplish this is to make it function as a magnetic product. The magnetism would prefer the passage of one kind of spin and hence produce an imbalance in the variety of electrons with spin-up versus spin-down. In magnetic graphene, this would lead to an extremely spin-polarized existing.

Talieh Ghiasi and Alexey Kaverzin

First author Talieh Ghiasi (right) and 2nd author Alexey Kaverzin at the lab of Physics of Nanodevices, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials. Credit: University of Groningen

This concept had actually now been experimentally validated by the researchers in the Physics of Nanodevices group led by prof. Bart van Wees at the University of Groningen, Zernike institute for sophisticated products. When they brought graphene in close distance to a 2D layered antiferromagnet, CrSBr, they might straight determine a big spin-polarization of existing, created by the magnetic graphene.


In standard graphene-based spintronic gadgets, ferromagnetic (cobalt) electrodes are utilized for injecting and spotting the spin signal into graphene. In contrast, in circuits constructed from magnetic graphene, the injection, transportation, and detection of the spins all can be done by the graphene itself, describes Talieh Ghiasi, very first author of the paper. ‘We detect an exceptionally large spin-polarization of conductivity of 14% in the magnetic graphene that is also expected to be efficiently tuneable by a transverse electric field.’ This, together with the impressive charge and spin transportation residential or commercial properties of graphene permits the awareness of all-graphene 2D spin-logic circuitries where the magnetic graphene alone can inject, transportation, and identify the spin info.

Moreover, the inescapable heat dissipation that takes place in any electronic circuitry is relied on a benefit in these spintronic gadgets. ‘We observe that the temperature gradient in the magnetic graphene due to the Joule heating is converted to spin current. This happens by the spin-dependent Seebeck effect that is also observed in graphene for the first time in our experiments,’ states Ghiasi. The effective electrical and thermal generation of spin currents by magnetic graphene assures significant advances both for the 2D spintronic and spin-caloritronic innovations.

Graphene Flagship

The spin transportation in graphene, in addition, is extremely conscious the magnetic habits of the outer-most layer of the surrounding antiferromagnet. This indicates that such spin transportation measurements make it possible for the read-out of the magnetization of a single atomic layer. Thus, the magnetic graphene-based gadgets not just resolve the most technically pertinent elements of magnetism in graphene for the 2D memory and sensory systems however likewise offer more insight into the physics of magnetism.

The future ramifications of these outcomes will be examined in the context of the EU Graphene Flagship, which works towards brand-new applications of graphene and 2D products.

Reference: “Electrical and Thermal Generation of Spin Currents by Magnetic Bilayer Graphene” by T.S. Ghiasi, A.A. Kaverzin, A.H. Dismukes, D.K. de Wal, X. Roy and B. J. van Wees, 6 May 2021, Nature Nanotechnology.
DOI: 10.1038/s41565-021-00887-3

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