Viral Dark Matter Exposed in Pioneering Research

Bacterial Toxin Concept

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Metagenome Database Detects Phage-Derived Antibacterial Enzyme

Scientists show that the details about host bacteria-bacteriophage (phage) associations stemmed from world’s very first metagenome analysis works for the advancement of phage treatments versus intestinal tract pathobionts.

In a pioneering research study released in Cell Host & Microbe — Researchers at Osaka City University and The Institute for Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, reported intestinal tract bacterial and viral metagenome details from the fecal samples of 101 healthy Japanese people. This analysis, leveraging host bacteria-phage associations, spotted phage-derived anti-bacterial enzymes that manage pathobionts. As proof-of-concept, phage-derived endolysins are revealed to control C. difficile infection in mice.

Viral Dark Matter Exposed

Let’s offer our unique “phage” attack to those wicked C. difficile! Credit: Illustration by Hideaki Miyauchi / Satoshi Uematsu, Osaka City University

Abnormalities in human intestinal tract microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, are linked to different illness. Altered microbial variety hinders the advantageous results of host intestinal tract microflora, which trigger some cooperative commensal germs to obtain virulence characteristics, multiply, and ended up being straight associated with the advancement of illness. These germs are described as “pathobionts,” which stand out from opportunistic pathogens.

C. difficile, which is a Gram-favorable, spore-forming anaerobic germs, is a pathobiont and the representative reason for nosocomial diarrhea following antibiotic treatment. Since antibiotic use has the danger of eliminating advantageous germs and promoting dysbiosis, the advancement of techniques to particularly control intestinal tract pathobionts is necessary.

“Phages were sure to be applicable as a highly specific therapy for intestinal pathobiont elimination”, thought Professor Satoshi Uematsu. The transmittable associations in between phages and germs in the human intestinal tract is necessary details for the advancement of phage treatments. Known as “viral dark matter” as it had yet to be comprehended, scientists gotten metagenome details about bacteria-phage associations from the fecal samples of 101 healthy people through the advancement of a virome analysis pipeline. Based on this details, scientists evaluated C. difficile-particular phages and determined unique anti-bacterial enzymes, both in vitro and in vivo.

“The accumulation of more metagenomic information on intestinal phages and bacteria will open up the possibility of developing treatments for a variety of dysbiosis-related diseases,” stated Dr. Kosuke Fujimoto and Prof. Seiya Imoto.

Reference: “Metagenome Data on Intestinal Phage-Bacteria Associations Aids the Development of Phage Therapy against Pathobionts” by Kosuke Fujimoto, Yasumasa Kimura, Masaki Shimohigoshi, Takeshi Satoh, Shintaro Sato, Georg Tremme, Miho Uematsu, Yunosuke Kawaguchi, Yuki Usui, Yoshiko Nakano, Tetsuya Hayashi, Koji Kashima, Yoshikazu Yuki, Kiyoshi Yamaguchi, Yoichi Furukawa, Masanori Kakuta, Yutaka Akiyama, Rui Yamaguchi, Sheila E.Crowe, Peter B. Ernst, Satoru Miyano, Hiroshi Kiyono, Seiya Imoto and Satoshi Uematsu, July 2020, Cell Host & Microbe.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.005

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